A testimony of Lucyna Adamkiewicz, World War II veteran, Home Army soldier and prisoner of the German concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau.
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It's been 15 years since Ryszard Kukliński died. As a colonel of the Polish People’s Army, he began, on his own initiative, cooperation with US intelligence services. In fear of a potential military conflict in Europe, he revealed to Americans tens of thousands secret plans drafted by the Warsaw Pact, including a plan of attack against NATO allies. Shortly before the martial law was declared in Poland, the CIA evacuated Kukliński together with his wife and two sons to the United States due to the threat of unmasking.
“Auschwitz is a history of extreme dehumanisation. From the very beginning, the world realised that the remains of camps must serve as a dire warning. In order for this warning to be effective, education has to stir people’s imagination of their own responsibility for fighting evil or for passivity”. About the challenges in the education about the Auschwitz history today we talk with Dr. Piotr M.A. Cywiński, Director of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim.
The January Uprising of 1863 was the longest and largest Polish insurrection for independence of the 19th century. It broke another record too - the number of women who fought in its battles exceeded any previous armed struggles. The "Women's War", as the Uprising has been sometimes called, and great trauma it caused, brought enormous suffering, but, on the other hand, in its result, women’s emancipation became one of key questions addressed by the Polish Positivists. An indirect effect of the immense role women played in the Uprising was granting them suffrage shortly after regaining freedom and sovereignty. Polish women were one of the first in Europe to receive voting rights, i.e. as far back as in 1918.
If you are interested in Polish history, there is a good chance that you have heard about the partitions. You may also have heard about the November Uprising, which began on 29 November 1830. And if you dig deeper into the subject, you will read that the uprising broke out in the Kingdom of Poland. But wait a second: there was no Poland at that time. Where does the Kingdom of Poland come from? And why did the Poles rise up if they had their own country? Unfortunately, as usual, Polish history is complicated – so let’s try to get to the bottom of it.
On the 28th of November 1918 Polish women achieved the right to vote. Poland was one of the first countries in Europe to secure this essential issue. But it was not only about voting - Polish women during the period of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939) were gaining more and more independence, proving their extraordinary role in Polish history and culture. Check what civil liberties and possibilieties did women obtain after Poland had regained independence.